The Basics of Law

Law is the system of rules that a country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its people. It shapes politics, economics, history and society and is a mediator of relations between people.

A scholarly discipline that studies the law and how it works, including the structure of courts and the judicial process. It includes the study of statutes, cases, and laws, jurisprudence, and legal theory.

There are two types of systems: civil law, which originated in Europe and is in use around the world; and common law, based on court decisions rather than statutes. A third type of legal system, international law, is used to regulate the actions of nations or groups of states.

The law is divided into several branches, such as contract law and property law. These branches deal with how people can enter into agreements to exchange goods or services, and how people can own property such as land or buildings.

Criminal law covers crimes that are punishable by imprisonment or other punishments, such as capital offenses. It also deals with the rights of people who are not citizens of a particular nation-state, such as immigrants or stateless individuals.

Lawyer – A person who represents someone in a case, and usually helps the client defend their rights.

Judge – A member of the justice system who decides what to do in a case and gives instructions to lawyers during trial.

Jury – A group of people who hear evidence and make decisions on the case.

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