Law is a system of rules created and enforced by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. Laws may be made by a group legislature, resulting in statutes; by the executive through decrees and regulations; or established by judges through precedent, resulting in common law. Laws govern a wide range of activities, from personal relationships to property ownership to crime. Laws serve a number of purposes: they establish standards, maintain order, resolve disputes, and protect liberties and rights.
There is great debate over the nature of law, with different theories varying in their emphasis on particular aspects. One view, for example, emphasizes that laws are simply practical demands that governments can impose on their citizens through coercion. This idea of law has been criticized by both utilitarians (such as Bentham) and legal positivists.
Other views focus on the normative aspect of law, arguing that it gives people reasons for acting in certain ways. This feature of law is controversial, but it is an important part of the concept of law that many philosophers have investigated.
Another aspect of law is the fact that it varies widely across jurisdictions. This variety is partly due to differing social conditions and cultures, but also because of differences in the development of legal systems. For example, Asian legal traditions are generally less formal than the Western tradition. The eastern law systems of India and Pakistan reflect a blend of secular and religious influences, while Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan have adopted parts of the European civil code.