What Is Law?
‘Law’ is a set of rules that are enforceable by governmental institutions and social institutions. In its most basic definition, law is the law that governs people’s relationships. Law is often described as the art of justice. Usually, the practice of law is regulated by government and overseen by an independent regulating body.
There are three main categories of legal systems. These are civil law, common law, and religious law. Each of these systems has its own characteristics.
Civil law legal systems are typically shorter, and require less detailed judicial decisions. Common law legal systems are more detailed, and require human elaboration of the law. They also include the doctrine of precedent, meaning that a court’s decision binds future decisions.
Common law legal systems are also distinguished by the use of analogy. They acknowledge that decisions made by the executive branch or a group legislature are “law.” They also incorporate the doctrine of precedent, which means that decisions made by one court bind future decisions made by that same court.
Religious law is based on religious precepts and consensus. Some religious laws are written in a book called the Quran. The Quran acts as a source of law through Ijma (the Islamic concept of religion) and Qiyas (the Quran’s interpretation of the Islamic concepts).
Some legal systems have argumentative theories. These theories are present in both civil law and common law legal systems. These theories can include the golden rule, systemic interpretation, and directives of linguistic interpretation.